Mussoorie (Garhwali/Hindi: Masūrī) is a hill station and a municipal board in the Dehradun District of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand.
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It is about 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the state capital of Dehradun and 290 km (180 mi) north of the national capital of New Delhi. The hill station is in the foothills of the Garhwal Himalayan range. The adjoining town of Landour, which includes a military cantonment, is considered part of ‘greater Mussoorie’, as are the townships of Barlowganj and Jharipani.
Mussoorie is at an average altitude of 1,880 metres (6,170 ft). To the northeast are the Himalayan snow ranges, and to the south, the Doon Valley and Shiwalik ranges. The second highest point is the original Lal Tibba in Landour, with a height of over 2,275 metres (7,464 ft). Mussoorie is popularly known as The Queen of the Hills.
Mussoorie was founded by Lt. Frederick Young of East India Company. Lt. Young came to these hills for the purpose of shooting game.
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He was so enamoured by the beauty that he decided to build a hunting lodge (shooting box) on the Camel’s Back Road with FJ Shore, Jt. Magistrate of Doon in 1823. He raised the first Gurkha Regiment and planted the first potatoes in the valley. His tenure in Mussoorie ended in 1844 and he further served in Dimapore and Darjeeling and retired as a General and went back to Ireland. There are no memorials to commemorate Young in Mussoorie. However, there is a Young Road in Dehradoon on which ONGC’s Tel Bhawan stands.
In 1832 Mussoorie was the intended terminus of the Great Trigonometric Survey of India that began at the southern tip of India. Although unsuccessful, the Surveyor General of India at the time, George Everest wanted to have the new office of the Survey of India based in Mussoorie. A compromise was to have it in Dehradun, where it still is.
Mussoorie view from the top of the hill (can be viewed while traveling on the way towards down of the hill)
Another view from top of a Hill
The name Mussoorie is often attributed to a derivation of ‘mansoor’, a shrub which is indigenous to the area. The town is often referred to as ‘Mansoori’ by most Indians.
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